Traditional recipes

What are Matzo Balls?

What are Matzo Balls?

No great chicken soup is complete without them

Wikimedia Commons

Not for those on a low-carb diet.

Matzo balls, or matzah balls, are not only one of the cornerstones of Jewish cuisine, they’re also one of the fundamental components of one of Judaism’s greatest culinary contributions to the world at large, matzo ball soup. But what are these big balls of starch, anyway?

As you might have guessed, the primary component of matzo ball soup is matzo, finely ground into a flour-like powder called matzo meal. Each family usually has its own recipe, but they all contain eggs, water, and fat (traditionally chicken fat, or schmaltz) in addition to the matzo, but oil or margarine can be used in place of the fat. Butter or dairy aren’t traditional ingredients because it’s not kosher to mix dairy with meat.

The matzo ball mixture is incredibly sticky, so it’s important to keep your hands wet when forming the balls. They can be large or small, depending on your preference, and can be dropped directly into boiling chicken soup; they’ll swell up and cook within about 20 minutes.

Matzo balls are essentially traditional dumplings, and can turn a simple bowl of chicken soup into a hearty, filling meal. Here's a great recipe.

Matzo Ball Soup

There’s an entire chicken in this matzo ball soup recipe, and then some. Not a mistake. You’ll pull out the breast early on and use the white meat to garnish the finished bowls, but everything else stays and simmers for hours, enriching the stock with concentrated flavor and lip-smacking body.

Wise Sons Deli Matzo Balls

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Matzo balls are hard to get right—the steps are simple, but it’s easy to mess up. Before we opened Wise Sons, our Jewish deli in San Francisco, we experimented with maybe 15 matzo ball recipes to find out how to make the lightest ones. Was it the leavening, the baking powder that was the key? Ultimately we took the most basic recipe and doubled both the fat and salt. One piece of advice for handling the matzo balls themselves: It’s a delicate batter, so easy does it. Try not to overwork it. Serve these in our Wise Sons Deli Matzo Ball Soup.

What to buy: Streit’s matzo meal is toastier and has a coarser texture than other brands we’ve tried. If you’re making this for Passover, make sure the matzo meal is kosher for Passover.

Game plan: You can make and poach the matzo balls up to 2 days before you plan to serve the soup. Keep them in a water bath, refrigerated.


  1. 1 Combine the eggs and schmaltz, either by hand with a whisk or in a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment. Beat until thoroughly mixed and fluffy.
  2. 2 Add the matzo meal slowly, in a few additions, until combined.
  3. 3 Then add the seltzer, salt, and pepper, mixing until just combined. Taste again for salt (it should be well seasoned). Cover the bowl with plastic wrap and rest in the refrigerator at least 2 hours, or as long as overnight.
  4. 4 Combine the cold water and a big pinch of kosher salt in a wide, high-sided saucepan with a tightfitting lid over medium heat and bring to a gentle simmer. Scoop 10 to 12 evenly sized lumps of the matzo mixture and place on a platter or baking sheet. Lightly coat your hands with vegetable oil and gently roll each lump into a ball between your palms, trying not to compress the ball, and place it gently into the simmering water.
  5. 5 Repeat until all the matzo balls are in the water. Reduce the heat to the lowest possible setting, cover the pan, and simmer for 30 minutes.
  6. 6 If you’re not serving your soup right away, cool the matzo balls by placing them in a cold-water bath and refrigerate up to 2 days. Reheat gently in the soup and serve.

Recipe: Joan Nathan's Matzo Balls

4 large eggs
1/4 cup schmaltz (rendered chicken fat), coconut oil or vegetable oil (kosher for Passover)
1/4 cup chicken stock or vegetable stock
1 cup matzo meal
1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
2 tablespoons freshly grated ginger
2 tablespoons finely chopped parsley, dill or cilantro
1 teaspoon salt, more for cooking
Black pepper

1. In a large bowl, combine the eggs, schmaltz, stock, matzo meal, nutmeg, ginger and parsley. Season with 1 teaspoon salt and a few grinds of pepper. Gently mix with a whisk or spoon. Cover and refrigerate until chilled, about 3 hours or overnight.

2. To shape and cook the matzo balls, fill a wide, deep pan with lightly salted water and bring to a boil. With wet hands, take some of the mix and mold it into the size and shape of a Ping-Pong ball. Gently drop it into the boiling water, repeating until all the mix is used.

3. Cover the pan, reduce heat to a lively simmer and cook matzo balls about 50 minutes for al dente, longer for light. If desired, the cooked matzo balls can be transferred to chicken or vegetable soup and served immediately. Alternatively, they may be placed on a baking sheet and frozen, then transferred to a freezer bag and kept frozen until a few hours before serving reheat in chicken or vegetable soup or broth.

Homemade Matzo

I'm not going to sit here and tell you I'm a big matzo gal. Matzo with cream cheese and jelly? Sure. Matzo with peanut butter? Fine. But matzo for matzo's sake? Yikes.

But this year, as you may have heard, is different. I'm not going to be home with my family for Seder and I'm so sad about it. In an attempt to make my tiny NYC Seder a bit more personal, I reached out to my brother and sister-in-law, Barry Dolinger and Naomi Baine, the co-founders of Mitzvah Matzos, a shmura matzo company that donates all proceeds to fighting human trafficking.

Barry walked me through the differences between this homemade matzo and the kind that frequents most people's Seder tables (he explains most of them in the video above, but I'll give you a hint: this matzo is a much more intimate tribute to the story of Passover and why it is we eat a flat, unseasoned bread for eight days a year to begin with). What it all boils down to? Flour, water, aggression, and time. If you do it right, you'll have homemade matzo in exactly 20 minutes&mdashhe explains the significance of that number in the video too.

I loved learning more about&mdashand making with my own two hands!&mdashthis Passover essential. And I felt great about it in the process. After all, it is a mitzvah to even eat the stuff. Chag Sameach!

What is Matzo Ball Mix and What Else Can You Do With It?

Just because matzo is a Jewish food traditionally eaten during Passover, that doesn’t mean that you can’t enjoy it year-round. Not to be confused with matzo meal, which is simply matzo crackers that are ground up into a fine meal, matzo ball mix is a pre-packaged mixture of matzo meal, spices (garlic powder, onion powder, celery salt, etc.), and preservatives. Manischewitz is a popular brand that you will more than likely be able to find on the international aisle of your favorite supermarket.

Because matzo crackers, on their own, are unleavened bread made with flour and water, they have an extremely bland flavor. Therefore, this pre-mixed box saves you the hassle of laboriously spicing and flavoring your ground matzo—it’s already done for you! Intended for being made into light, fluffy matzo balls, this mix comes with a recipe on the package which instructs you to combine the contents of the packets with eggs and oil, and then boiling the little doughy fritters. It’s mind-numbingly simple and a great option for someone who doesn’t want to start from scratch for their next homemade matzo ball soup. The best part? Your guests will never know it’s from a mix—in fact, they’ll probably believe that you spent hours sweating over these cloud-like labors of love. Jokes on them, amiright?!

For those of us who aren’t afraid to stray from the provided directions, rest assured that there’s still some matzo mix fun to be had. If you’re still thinking along the lines of matzo balls, go ahead and add a few bonus ingredients to those balls like spinach, carrots, feta, and/or peppers. There’s plenty of wiggle room for the add-ins that you𠆝 like to incorporate—mix in what feels right, A.K.A. whatever you want. The world of matzo balls is yours to explore! You could even go ahead and deep-fry them instead of boiling them, and you definitely will not regret that decision.

You can (and should) also use the mix to bread chicken, fish, or pork* if you’re looking to switch things up from the Italian-style breadcrumbs that you’re used to. Make a batch of savory muffins or scones and toss in a packet of matzo ball mix for an extra dose of savory-salty goodness. Basically, don’t feel limited by a product that comes with a strict recipe on the back as far as how it is intended to be prepared. Sure, go ahead and do your matzo ball thang whenever you damn please, but experimenting with this concoction of ground matzo and spices is also a very valid thing to do. In either case, you’re still BALLIN’.

A Bowl of Gail Simmons’ Matzo Ball Soup Will Cure What Ails You

‘Top Chef’ judge Gail Simmons combined two favorite family recipes to get this unconventional and ultra-satisfying take on matzo ball soup.

Anna Archibald

G rowing up, Gail Simmons not only ate matzo ball soup during Passover, but also during Hanukkah, at many Friday night Shabbat dinners and when she was feeling under the weather. Her grandma Snazzy’s recipe for the soup, with its classic chicken soup base, was both hearty and nourishing.

“It is the soup of my ancestors that my grandmother made for every occasion,” says Simmons, a culinary school graduate and Top Chef judge. “There’s tons of collagen and lean protein in the soup from the chicken and the chicken stock, so it’s very restorative. There’s a reason that we all eat it when we’re sick from a physical standpoint. It really is the ultimate comfort food, and every culture has variations on it.”

When she wrote Bringing It Home: Favorite Recipes from a Life of Adventurous Eating, released in 2017, including a version of her grandmother’s soup was a no-brainer. However, she wanted to amp up the traditional dish, so she took a cue from another family favorite: her mother-in-law Noreen’s barley, lemon and chicken soup.

“I used to just make the two recipes separately [but] I realized there’s so much overlap between them, and one day I kind of put it together,” says Simmons. “When I put them together, I realized it’s like the perfect mishmosh.”

Her resulting Fully Loaded Matzo Ball Soup (recipe below), from its root vegetable and barley-fortified chicken soup base to the dill-flecked matzo balls, has now become a favorite of her household. True to a classic mishmosh, it gives purpose to every last scrap of chicken and vegetable that goes into it—and it’s versatile enough for home cooks everywhere to adapt it to their own tastes.

Courtesy Guerin Blask

Traditionally, a mishmosh was “created to use all the waste and make the most out of ingredients for people who didn’t have a lot,” she says. “Making chicken stock from the bones and vegetable scraps—this is a frugal, humble dish that uses every part and there’s very little waste.”

Though Simmons’ fully loaded mishmosh soup bucks tradition in many ways, it’s just as hearty and resourceful as the classic. Here are her tips and advice for preparing it.

Simmons’ matzo ball mishmosh recipe begins with its most restorative element: the stock.

“It’s a very classic Ashkenazi chicken soup [from] Jews that came from Eastern Europe to the Americas,” she says. “It’s a really flavorful stock that is basically made from a whole chicken that [is broken] down and poached in the stock.”

At the start, the entire chicken is placed in a stock pot with water and vegetables, including carrots, onion and garlic. As the stock cooks and extracts the chicken’s aroma and flavor, you’ll remove the breast meat, thighs and other dark meat in stages to shred. This will eventually be added to the finished soup, but you’ll return all the bones to the stock pot to extract every last ounce of goodness before finally straining them out.

Though homemade stock and freshly poached chicken will provide an extra measure of flavor and satisfaction, this first step of the recipe is also the most time consuming. To expedite the process, Simmons often buys stock instead.

“If you’re not up for making your own stock, you can use a box stock and just poach the chicken in there,” she says. To speed the process up even more, Simmons suggests that you bypass poaching a raw chicken and instead opt for a rotisserie one. Just shred the meat off the bones and skip directly ahead to making the matzo balls.

“This is an involved recipe and there are many shortcuts you can take—it’s not all or nothing,” says Simmons. But “I think that the sum of the parts, if you really do the whole recipe from scratch, is so much better. As with any cooking, it’s about time and practice.”

If there’s one thing in this recipe that Simmons is adamant you make from scratch, it’s the matzo balls. Infused with dill and “light as air,” you’ll have to make a concerted effort not to immediately eat them all. You likely already have many of the ingredients you need in your pantry, so skip the ubiquitous pre-made mix, which is “just all the dry ingredients” anyway, so you can have full control over the final flavor.

Matzo balls “are very polarizing,” Simmons says. “People have bad experiences with matzo balls and they make associations with matzo balls that they’re these giant, heavy, dense things that are like a brick at the bottom of the bowl. My matzo balls are super light and fluffy.”

Achieving Simmons’ version of the classic Jewish dumpling is no more difficult than making a batch of cookies. The recipe calls for matzo meal, baking powder, salt and fresh dill with eggs, schmaltz (rendered fat) and club soda (for “levity”). If you don’t have schmaltz on hand, which will provide a richer flavor to the finished matzo ball, clarified butter will do just fine (though if you do make this substitution the soup will no longer be kosher).

“The key is to not make them too massive and to make sure that we cook them through,” says Simmons. The matzo meal “expands by like triple” once the balls go into the water, so be aware of this during the shaping process. Aside from that, just be sure to give them plenty of time to rest in the fridge prior to cooking.

“I always say to people who are intimidated by making their own balls to try my recipe,” she says. “My ideal matzo ball is not hard to make. It just takes a little love.”

With the stock, chicken and matzo balls covered, now’s the time to pack the soup full of veggies. Simmons goes for root vegetables that are classic in chicken soup, like carrots, parsnips and onions, as well as plenty of leek, celery and garlic. Really, you can add in whatever other veggies you have on hand—the only thing Simmons would avoid at all costs are tomatoes as they will change the flavor of the dish too much. “If you’re playing with veggies, don’t play with the tomato,” she says. “This is not a tomato-based soup in any way.”

The addition of barley is where Simmons’ matzo ball soup really begins to set itself apart from the standard.

“A lot of people put noodles in their soup, of course, like chicken noodle soup,” says Simmons. “It’s very traditional to put things like kasha in your soup. Kasha [buckwheat] is a very nutty, rustic whole grain that is often used in very old-world Jewish cooking. I like kasha, but I don’t love it, so I chose to use whole pearl barley in this recipe.”

The barley takes a little less time to cook than kasha, but it still soaks up the flavor of the stock

Before ladling out this matzo ball soup, Simmons likes to top it with a couple bright finishing touches. Though her recipe already uses dill, she says a garnish of parsley or tarragon is also a great option. These herbs combined with a squeeze of lemon juice, is “the little finish that lifts the whole thing up.”

Borrowing one last element from the barley chicken stew her mother-in-law taught her how to make two decades ago, Simmons dusts a bit of Parmesan cheese over the top of each bowl.

“You can leave it out to be kosher,” she says.“But if it’s not for a special holiday and you are not kosher, it adds just a little bit of body and umami that really builds on that comforting flavor. ”


Chicken & Stock:

  • 1 (4- to 5-pound) Whole chicken, thighs and breasts separated
  • 4 medium Carrots, coarsely chopped
  • 4 medium Celery ribs, coarsely chopped
  • 2 medium Yellow onions, cut into wedges
  • 1 head Garlic, halved crosswise
  • 8 sprigs Fresh flat-leaf parsley
  • 1 Tbsp Black peppercorns

Matzo Balls:

  • 4 large Eggs, lightly beaten
  • 1/4 cup Schmaltz or clarified butter (info to follow below), melted
  • 3 Tbsp Club soda
  • 2 Tbsp Fresh dill finely chopped
  • 1 cup Matzo meal
  • 1/2 tsp Baking powder
  • Kosher salt
  • 3 Tbsp Extra-virgin olive oil
  • 2 medium Carrots, cut on the bias into 1/4-inch pieces
  • 2 medium Parsnips, cut on the bias into 1/4-inch pieces
  • 2 Celery ribs, cut on the bias into 1/4-inch pieces
  • 1 large Leek, white and pale green parts only, thinly sliced
  • 1 Garlic clove, finely chopped
  • 1 cup Pearl barley, rinsed
  • Kosher salt
  • Freshly ground black pepper
  • 1/4 cup Finely chopped fresh dill, plus more for serving
  • 2 Tbsp Fresh lemon juice
  • 1/2 cup Finely grated Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese (optional)


For the Chicken & Stock:

Add all the chicken and stock to a large stockpot. Add 3 1/2 quarts water and bring to a boil over high heat. Reduce to a gentle simmer and cook until the chicken breasts are cooked through, about 20 minutes.

Transfer breasts to a plate. Let cool slightly, then remove the meat from the bones and set aside. Return the bones to the stock. Continue to simmer, skimming foam from the surface occasionally, until the liquid is reduced by one-third, about 2 hours. Meanwhile, shred the breast meat and refrigerate, covered, until ready to use.

Strain the stock through a fine-mesh sieve into a large bowl discard the solids. Pick through and shred the dark meat, then refrigerate with the breast meat. You should have about 4 cups of meat and 10 cups of stock. (The stock and chicken can be made ahead and refrigerated, covered, for up to 3 days, or frozen for up to 1 month.)

For the Matzo Balls:

In a large bowl, whisk together the eggs, schmaltz, club soda and dill. Stir in the matzo meal, baking powder and 2 teaspoons salt. Refrigerate uncovered, at least 30 minutes or up to 2 hours.

Bring a large Dutch oven or wide, heavy pot of well-salted water to a boil. Scoop out the matzo ball mixture, one tablespoon at a time and, using wet hands, gently roll into balls. Add the matzo balls to the boiling water, then reduce to a gentle simmer. Cover and simmer until the matzo balls are plump, cooked through, and begin to sink to the bottom of the pot, 30 to 40 minutes. Remove from the heat. The matzo balls can be kept in the pot of warm water, covered, until ready to serve. While the matzo balls are simmering, prepare the soup.

For the Soup:

In a 6- to 8-quart Dutch oven or wide, heavy pot with lid, heat the oil over medium heat. Add the carrots and parsnips and cook until starting to soften, about 3 minutes. Stir in the celery, leek and garlic and cook, stirring occasionally, until all vegetables are softened, 5 to 8 minutes more. Add the barley, 1/4 teaspoon salt and a generous pinch or two of pepper. Cook, stirring frequently, until the barley begins to toast, about 1 minute. Add 8 cups of the chicken stock and bring to a boil. Reduce to a simmer, cover, and cook over low heat, stirring occasionally, until the barley is tender, about 30 minutes.

Add 2 cups shredded white and/or dark chicken meat to the soup and simmer to warm through, about 2 minutes, (reserve the remaining chicken to use in salads, pastas, or other dishes). Stir in the dill and lemon juice. remove from the heat and adjust the seasoning to taste.

Ladle the soup into bowls. Using a slotted spoon, transfer a few matzo balls into each bowl. Top with more dill and a sprinkle of Parmesan, if desired.

The soup can be made up to three days ahead. During this time, the barley will continue to absorb liquid, making the soup very thick. Add more stock or water when reheating to return it to desired consistency, adjusting the seasoning to taste.

Notes: Back in my grandma’s day (and even when my mom was younger), Jewish home cooks used schmaltz (the Yiddish word for rendered chicken, duck, or goose fat) as a staple ingredient for frying latkes, making chopped liver and matzo ball soup, and spreading onto bread (move over butter!). Many Jewish cooks still say it’s the key to the most flavorful matzo ball soup you can make. I use schmaltz in my matzo balls when I can find it, but sub easy-to-make clarified butter when it is not available.

Clarified butter is butter with both its milk proteins and water removed (which together make up about 20 percent of its contents), changing it from emulsified fat to pure butterfat. To clarify butter, simply melt it in a small saucepan over low heat until it comes to an active simmer. Cook until the foam that forms on top (these are the milk proteins) breaks up and sinks to the bottom of the pan, and the bubbling subsides. Remove the pan from the heat, then skim off any remaining foam and strain through a cheesecloth or coffee filter into a bowl. Keep clarified butter in an airtight container and refrigerate for up to 1 month.

Adapted fromBringingIt Home: Favorite Recipes from a Life of Adventurous Eating by Gail Simmons. Copyright © 2017 by GMS Media, Inc. Reprinted with permission from Grand Central Life & Style. All rights reserved.

Beat the egg whites until stiff and set aside. Beat the egg yolks, salt, parsley, onion, oil, pepper, and soup mix until creamy. Fold the egg whites into the egg mixture. Gradually fold in the matzah meal. Cover and chill for 1-1/2 hours.

Bring a very large pot of water to a rolling boil. Add about 1 teaspoon of salt to the water.

With well oiled hands, make small balls about 3/4 inch in diameter. Drop them into the boiling water. Cover the pot tightly and boil for about 30-40 minutes. Don’t peek!!

I Thought I Hated Matzo Balls Until I Made Them with Fresh Herbs and Seltzer

A cross-country relocation away from family in 2011 left me, as the stay-at-home parent, suddenly responsible for replicating traditional Jewish foods for our holiday celebrations. The only problem? I… don’t like most traditional Jewish foods.

From noodle kugel to smoked lox to sweet potato tzimmes, I couldn’t stand my own people’s comfort food. I felt like an impostor. A poser. A fraud. Especially because — plot twist! — I’m a rabbi. I mean, what kind of rabbi doesn’t like matzo balls?

I know! Kneidlach (aka matzo balls) are an Ashkenazic classic that I long detested for their lackluster flavor and unyielding density. When I requested my soup sans kneidlach, the disapproving looks from my mother and grandmother were deafening. It was as if I was rejecting them and not their carefully crafted homemade matzo balls.

When we left California for the cornfields of Pennsylvania, food, especially Jewish food, became the vehicle for connecting us to a sense of home and to our people. I was determined to make tasty kneidlach from scratch.

Reader, you might be wondering why I didn’t overnight matzo balls from Zabar’s or use a boxed matzo ball mix. There’s absolutely no shame in doing so, but to me, outsourcing felt like it would only reaffirm the illegitimacy I already carried from not liking Jewish food in the first place. I wanted to feed my Jewish family Jewish food that I cooked with my own two hands. And I wanted to like eating that food.

A recipe for onion-stuffed kneidlach by Geila Hocherman got me thinking: What if it wasn’t that I hated matzo balls but that I just hadn’t eaten one flavorful enough to satisfy my palate? What if the problem was that my family’s matzo ball recipe relied solely on salt and pepper for seasoning? I found them “a little one-note,” as Tom Colicchio from “Top Chef” might say (though I’d dare him to try saying that to my mother and come out unscathed).

But Hocherman’s onion-stuffed version was a more revolutionary take on kneidlach than I was looking for. I just wanted a classic, savory matzo ball that would satiate my taste buds.

I began to experiment with flavors, pulling tips from my favorite cooking shows, magazines, and cookbooks. I discovered that shmaltz made for a richer, more flavorful matzo ball than canola oil and that a dash of ground ginger added a subtle complexity to these spherical dumplings. Seltzer water made them fluffy and light, and the addition of fresh dill and garlic powder transformed these moist, heavy lumps of matzo meal into the centerpiece of the soup course.

Who knew that a few humble spices and herbs would be the portal to my rediscovery and love of the kneidel? I certainly didn’t see it coming. But the journey was worth it for the destination. Kneidlach, as it turns out, were just the tip of the iceberg. Once I felt free to abandon my family’s recipes, I discovered a whole world of Jewish foods that I had thought I didn’t like.